Tag: Rwanda


The African Century: Continent’s doubling population will shape everyone’s future

The global response to Africa’s burgeoning youth population will determine the course of history, according to a new report released today by The ONE Campaign ahead of the G20 “Partnership with Africa” conference in Berlin (June 12th and 13th).

‘The African Century’ shows that by 2050 Africa’s youth will outnumber the G20’s youth population and will bring with it huge opportunities – and requires everyone to work in partnership to seize this moment.

Without coordinated global action – in particular from African leaders and G20 countries – this opportunity will be lost, and the world risks severe consequences for regional and global stability.

However, through renewed action by African and G20 leaders investing into employment, education and empowerment,  sufficient jobs and chances for prosperity for this youth generation can be created and lead to an increase of $500bn for the African GDP for 30 years, which will also drive global growth.

Jamie Drummond, Co-Founder of ONE, said: “Africa’s population will more than double up to 2.5bn people until 2050 with half of them being under 25 years. By then Africa’s youth population will be ten times the size of European Union’s. What will this youth boom do, what will they think, what will they want? They will determine the future not just of Africa but Europe and the world – and we need to re-double our investments in their future now because it is also ours. This is why a historic new G20-Africa partnership is essential and must be agreed through Germany’s G20 summit.”

The ‘Partnership with Africa’ is a key theme of Germany’s G20 Presidency. As part of this theme, the ‘Partnership with Africa’ event will be a key moment – where the G20 will be presenting the “Compacts with Africa”.

These agreements between a developed country and a developing country aim to improve foreign direct investment in Africa, to boost private sector generated jobs.

Currently, five countries are listed for the compacts: Côte d’Ivoire, Morocco, Rwanda, Senegal and Tunisia.

ONE’s report, “The African Century” shows the compacts need to be expanded to Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and fragile states to be a successful tool for developing the continent. The average growth of the working-age population in fragile states and LDCs is with 77 percent much higher than in other African countries (60%).At the same time, these countries are determining the stability of entire regions.

Nachilala Nkombo, interim Executive Director of ONE in Africa said: “As the G20 focuses on Africa this year, it is important that they focus their partnerships and Compacts with Africa between 2017 – 2020 on investments and reforms that will accelerate the creation of millions of opportunities and jobs for Africa’s exploding population. The wider Africa must prioritise delivery of quality education – G20 partnership,  especially girls’ education as should be the empowerment of citizens to fight corruption. African heads of states at their July 2017 AU summit must agree on a set of investment targets to prevent a demographic disaster and ensure a dividend. African states urgently need the implementation of smart policies and targeted investments that focus on delivering education, employment and empowerment for its exploding youth population.   To better support Africa,  Europe must pass an anti-money laundering directive that helps African citizens track and follow the money sometimes stolen through corruption. Failure by our governments  and partners to grasp this opportunity will result in  deepening poverty, conflicts, terrorism and famine that will spill over international borders into Europe.”

Agricultural policies in Africa could be harming the poorest

Agricultural policies aimed at alleviating poverty in Africa could be making things worse, according to research by the University of East Anglia (UEA).

Published this month in the journal World Development, the study finds that so-called ‘green revolution’ policies in Rwanda – claimed by the government, international donors and organisations such as the International Monetary Fund to be successful for the economy and in alleviating poverty – may be having very negative impacts on the poorest.

Women-make-progress-in-modern-agriculture-2One of the major strategies to reduce poverty in sub-Saharan Africa is through policies to increase and modernise agricultural production. Up to 90 per cent of people in some African countries are smallholder farmers reliant on agriculture, for whom agricultural innovation, such as using new seed varieties and cultivation techniques, holds potential benefit but also great risk.

In the 1960s and 70s policies supporting new seeds for marketable crops, sold at guaranteed prices, helped many farmers and transformed economies in Asian countries. These became known as “green revolutions”. The new wave of green revolution policies in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by multinational companies and western donors, and is impacting the lives of tens, even hundreds of millions of smallholder farmers, according to the study’s lead author Dr Neil Dawson.

The study reveals that only a relatively wealthy minority have been able to keep to enforced modernisation because the poorest farmers cannot afford the risk of taking out credit for the approved inputs, such as seeds and fertilizers. Their lora_fertiliser_fullfears of harvesting nothing from new crops and the potential for the government to seize and reallocate their land means many choose to sell up instead.

The findings tie in with recent debates about strategies to feed the world in the face of growing populations, for example the influence of wealthy donors such as the Gates Foundation, initiative’s such as the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, and multinational companies such as Monsanto in pushing agricultural modernisation in Africa. There have also been debates about small versus large farms being best to combat hunger in Africa, while struggles to maintain local control over land and food production, for example among the Oromo people in Ethiopia, have been highlighted.

Dr Dawson, a senior research associate in UEA’s School of International Development, said: “Similar results are emerging from other experiments in Africa. Agricultural development certainly has the potential to help these people, but instead these policies appear to be exacerbating landlessness and inequality for poorer rural inhabitants.

“Many of these policies have been hailed as transformative development successes, yet that success is often claimed on the basis of weak evidence through inadequate impact assessments. And conditions facing African countries today are very different from those past successes in Asia some 40 years ago.

“Such policies may increase aggregate production of exportable crops, yet for many of the poorest smallholders they strip them of their main productive resource, land. This study details how these imposed changes disrupt subsistence practices, exacerbate poverty, impair local systems of trade and knowledge, and threaten land ownership. It is startling that the impacts of policies with such far-reaching impacts for such poor people are, in general, so inadequately assessed.”

Rwanda farming is very labor intensive, rural Rwanda, 1/13/09The research looked in-depth at Rwanda’s agricultural policies and the changes impacting the wellbeing of rural inhabitants in eight villages in the country’s mountainous west. Here chronic poverty is common and people depend on the food they are able to grow on their small plots.

Farmers traditionally cultivated up to 60 different types of crops, planting and harvesting in overlapping cycles to prevent shortages and hunger. However, due to high population density in Rwanda’s hills, agricultural policies have been imposed which force farmers to modernise with new seed varieties and chemical fertilisers, to specialise in single crops and part with “archaic” agricultural practices.

Dr Dawson and his UEA co-authors Dr Adrian Martin and Prof Thomas Sikor recommend that not only should green revolution policies be subject to much broader and more rigorous impact assessments, but that mitigation for poverty-exacerbating impacts should be specifically incorporated into such policies. In Rwanda, that means encouraging land access for the poorest and supporting traditional practices during a gradual and voluntary modernisation.

‘Green Revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications of Imposed Innovation for the Wellbeing of Rural Smallholders’, Neil Dawson, Adrian Martin and Thomas Sikor, is published in World Development.