Tag: Northern Ghana

Pɛpɛɛni, ntaafuo, eblutor and the prejudices we have of each other

A few weeks ago, there was an interesting discussion on Ghanaweb following Charles Agbenu’s article in which he castigated all Ghanaians who regard themselves as not being northerners for looking down on people of “northern extraction” in Ghana. Agbenu’s article was a politically motivated one but the issues it raised concern us all as Ghanaians and the way we think of each other.

One of the points of contention in Agbenu’s article had to do with the true meaning, or otherwise, of the Twi terms PƐPƐƐNI and NTAAFUO. This follows another ghanaweb columnist, Kofi Ata’s argument that the two terms did not, originally, have any negative connotations. Kofi Ata had written an article in which he said his mother had told him that PƐPƐƐNI came about as a result of Akans who perceived Northerners who had come south in search of employment as people who were truthful and did things “pɛpɛɛpɛ” (exactly or fairly). He added that they were referred to as NTAAFUO because they always moved in pairs like twins”.

regions of Ghana

regions of Ghana

Many commentators saw this explanation as very illuminating. This led to a rejoinder to Agbenu’s article that appeared the day after. Kofi Ata’s explanation of how the two terms came about was, indeed, interesting. But it had a few problems. In the first place, there was no way of establishing the fact that what Kofi Ata’s mother told him (Kofi Ata) constituted the unvarnished truth and was, indeed, how the terms came about. Other commentators said their mothers and grandmothers told them different stories. Some said pɛpɛni came about because these migrants were perceived as miserly (“pɛpɛɛnfuo”) and they were called ntaafuo because they bought similar items in the market as you would buy similar dresses for twins. What this shows is that it is only a properly conducted research work that can establish the correct etymology of the terms. The only thing we can be sure of is what their current usages denote in Ghanaian society.

Another fact is that no matter how the terms originated, they came about as nicknames for a group of people who never called themselves by those names. These people, having lived long in their new areas, came to know the names by which their hosts called them. They either did not like these names or did not care. Then there is this thing about nicknames. Even though they can be given to denote positive traits, they are most often given to denote negative traits.

Agbenu Charles also equated the terms “pɛpɛɛni” and “ntaafuo” with what he termed as their

Ewe dancers

Ewe dancers

equivalents in the other major Ghanaian languages. He said the Ewes call Northerners “dzogbedzitor” and the Gas say “senu”. The Ewe commentators went up in arms against Agbenu arguing that the Ewe term was not equivalent to the Akan terms. They said the Ewe term only denotes people who come from the grasslands or Sahara or a dry place and no abusive connotations are involved.

The Akans have a word for Northerners that can be said to be neutral: ESREMFUO (ESREMNI singular). The literal meaning is the same as the Ewe equivalent: people from the grasslands. Nobody who uses the term “esremfuo” can be accused of trying to look down on people from the North unless the person intentionally gives it a twist that makes it so.

The Ga term for Northerners, “Sanu” is said to be the shortened form of the Hausa greeting: “Sanu kede?” (How are you?) It is not, exactly, neutral.

13616_2014_12_MOESM1_ESMThe thing to be noted here is that any term used to denote some other people as different from us can, very easily, degenerate to a notion of “different and inferior”.  This is often so when it is the dominant and more powerful group that is marking the difference. That is why people have fought segregation (separate development) everywhere. And that also explains why the whites who come to live among us in Ghana do not quite like it when we call them “obroni”, “blofo” or “yevu” until they come to realise that we do not mean anything offensive by those terms. Even so, the supposed original meanings of the terms may not exactly be complimentary to the white man. The Twi term “obroni” begun as two words “(a)bro ni” (wicked man) and the Ewe term “a-yevu” means a cunning dog “the one who feigns niceness and bites you”, as Yaa Gyasi puts it in her much praised debut novel (HOMEGOING). I have not been able to find out how the Ga “blofo” came about. But, as with pɛpɛɛni and ntaafuo, the true origins of all these terms may have been lost.

There are other terms we all use to refer to each other whether for good or for bad. In Kumasi, there is Anwona. This is a corruption of the correct pronunciation of Anlo which is beyond most Twi speakers. The “nw” is a nasal sound as in the Twi “anwanwado” (amazing love). It has no negative connotations…

The Ewes call all Twi speakers “eblutorwo”. I have not been able to find out how this term came about. It seems the Ewes themselves don’t quite know how they came to call all Akans “eblutorwo”. If you ask any Ewe if the term is derogatory, they are quick to say it is not. But, again, from the contention of denoting otherness explained above, any term a people use to denote another people can easily degenerate to the regard of those other people as inferior. But, surely, Ewes do not regard Akans as inferior! Or, do they?

“Eblutorwor” seems to be the counterpart of “ayigbefuo” which many Akans will tell you is not

derogatory. Ga legend has it that when they were migrating to the present day Ghana, the chief

Homowo festival of the Ga people

Homowo festival of the Ga people

who had the royal stool in his keeping lost his way and gradually settled in what is now Anecho in present day Togo. When the Gas realised this, they sent emissaries to the “lost tribe” to retrieve the stool. But the chief of the “lost tribe”, known as Ayi, refused to hand over the stool. The emissaries came back to report this as “Ayi gbe” (“gbe” being the Ewe word for “refuse”). They said Ayi said “megbe” (I refuse). The combination of “Ayi” and “megbe” came to be used to refer to Ewes as “ayigbe”. Since the chief refused to hand over something that did not, technically, belong to him, he was said to have stolen it. This gave rise to “ayigbe dzulor” – a negative epithet that clouds all Ewes in the imagination of some non-Ewes. Whether this story is true or not, today, Akans join Gas to call Ewes “ayigbe”. Indeed, and one is more likely to hear “ayigbeni” or “ayigbefuo” than “ayigbenyo”. Perhaps it may be that the Akans, finding it almost impossible to correctly pronounce the word “Ewe”, took to the relatively easier to pronounce “ayigbe” even though the sound produced by “gb”, common in many West African languages, does not naturally occur in Twi.

Today, it is more politically correct to refer to the people of the Volta Region as “Voltarians” in an

Northerners of Ghana

Northerners of Ghana

effort to prevent the mistake of regarding all citizens of the region as Ewes when only about half the population are Ewes. The term also clouds the myriad differences among the Ewes just like pɛpɛɛni and ntaafuo disregard all the differences among the peoples of the three northern regions of Ghana. The use of the term “Anlo-Ewe” to refer to the coastal Ewes does seem to be of recent origin and employed mainly by non-Ewes. The Anlos call themselves “ANLOS” (nothing more) and their fellow Ewes also call them ANLOS (nothing more). Even so, there are still many Akans who think Ewes are a homogeneous group all of who eat “akple and fetri-detsi”. But many Ewes are aware of the broader differences among the Akans – Asante and Fante in particular but also and Kwahu and Akuapem.

An instance of the majority laying claim to what is normal can be found for the term that Akans have for minority (?) languages they do not understand. The people who speak them are said to “potor” and the languages known as “potorkasa”. Some people say the term is not derogatory and refers to all non-Twi languages including even English. Others say there is a derogatory tinge to it as it originally referred to Northerners who had come to Ashantiland and who spoke poor Twi– “wonmo potor kasa no”.

There is an Ewe equivalent, especially among the mid-Volta Ewes. The speakers of the minority languages there (Likpe, Buem, Akpafu, etc) are called “fiafialawo”. These people do not speak: they “fia”. The Ewe term is somewhat derogatory and is not used for major languages like Twi, Ga or English. There is a historical example in the ancient world. The Roman and Hellenic civilisations regarded non-Greek languages as unintelligible. They sounded “baaa baaa” to “civilized” ears. This is how “non-civilized” tribes became known as –  barbarians!

Ashanti Chief at Akwasidae Kese celebrations

Ashanti Chief at Akwasidae Kese celebrations

There are other prejudices the various ethnic groups hold of each other. Akans think Ewes like juju, they have low self-confidence, and they are envious of Akans. Ewes think Akans (especially Asantes) like money too much and like to boast of it. But the Asantes think it is the Kwahus who worship money and will do anything for it. Ewes frown on the display of wealth and will prefer the rich to keep a low profile. Akans say Ewes hide their wealth because they are afraid of being “jujued” by their fellows. The two prejudices fit each other and give rise to some cyclical reasoning. If Ewes dislike the way Akans boast of, and flaunt, their wealth, it stands to reason that they (Ewes) should keep a low profile with their wealth. And if the Akan prejudice about Ewes is that the latter like juju, then the only reason why the Ewe person will not flaunt his wealth is the fear of being done in. Of course, times have changed. Everyone likes material wealth and wants to boast of it when attained. Who lights a lamp and puts it under a bed?

Prejudices, psychologists tell us, are ready made schemas we employ to meet what we do not know. They are normal to the human race and found in all societies. Since they are often formed prior to any supporting evidence, they can lead us astray. It is when we base our behaviour on them that things can go wrong. And using them for political advantage can be detrimental to the effort of building a strong nation that benefits all of us.
By Stephen Atta Owusu
Author: Dark Faces at Crossroads.

*I want to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my Ewe friend who provided immense information on the Ewes during the writing of this piece.*

Fade To Black: Suicide Among Ghanaians

PANews_P-083e410e-484a-4fb1-97b5-ae8691cebef5_I1Sam Sarpong was a young man who tirelessly worked his way into the fashion and entertainment realms of Hollywood, his face recognisable in fashion shows, MTV or BET – one of the most established bright Black Stars on the diaspora. On the surface, he was a man living the dream. And yet, as October 2015 drew to a close, this same gentleman found himself on a bridge in Pasadena, California. After a deliberation of 7 hours, and despite the pleas of family and law enforcement, Sam’s world literally came crashing down.

After the initial shock of the premature loss of one of Ghana’s brightest exports, came the questions. Why would he do it? He had it all, right? He had no reason to, right? Then came the whispers – it’s such an un-Ghanaian thing to do. Suicide is a selfish act – how could he do it when his family loved him? But you see, that is where a big problem comes in – when we attempt to apply reason and rationale to one of humanity’s most irrational of acts.

It is the incomprehensible nature of how a human being who lives to exist would find themselves at a point where they would willingly extinguish the flame of their own lives, which grants suicide an element of mystery. Those who have ever been truly suicidal will identify with the gravity, the darkness, the single-mindedness of suicidal ideation. They will note how life seems at a literal dead end. They will tell you how things become so desperate, all they can think about is release, and relief, and escape.


More than 800 000 people die by suicide worldwide every year – around one person every 40 seconds. alone-for-the-holidaysSuicide is much more rampant in Ghana and among Ghanaians than you would initially expect or believe. Mental health experts estimate that in Ghana, five or more people take their own lives each day. Available statistics on suicide in Ghana indicate that Greater Accra region has the highest number of deaths by suicide. The network for Anti-Suicide & Suicide Prevention found 531 people between the age of 9-19 kill themselves in Ghana every year. Approximately 1500 cases of suicide occur in Ghana annually – constituting about 7% loss in GDP. And those are just the reported cases, with it being suggested that there are four unreported cases for every reported case – so you’re looking at more than 6000 suicides in Ghana each year.

But, anybody who attempts to commit suicide in Ghana commits a criminal act (as per section 57, clause 2 of the Criminal Offences Act of Ghana). The Mental Health Society of Ghana (MEHSOG), has asked the Constitutional Review Committee and the Ghana Law Reform Commission to revise this. People who attempt to commit suicide likely suffer some form of mental disorder and should rather be referred to the appropriate mental health facility for counselling and treatment.

According to Mavis Darko-Gyekye, a lecturer in social work at the University of Ghana: “Suicidal behaviour and threats of suicide have been ignored in the country even though they exist. These are issues that no one talks about because suicide is considered a taboo.” Because they are not talked about, the silence engineers an environment where warning signs are missed and alarm bells fail to be heard. And as I have stated in previous articles, there is a general taboo which surrounds mental health as a whole, which means that there are so many out there who do not seek the help they need – simply because it is not available, or because they believe nobody cares. Mavis Darko-Gyekye goes on to say how “Unfortunately, we are training personnel that are not being utilized because people do not want to be associated with anything that would lead to associating them with mental illness.”


o-DEPRESSION-BLACK-facebookSuicide is still deemed a taboo and abomination among Ghanaian ethnic groups and faiths. It can be deemed a ‘bad death’, and social reproach can be observed by behaviours such as discouraging prolonged and public mourning, and in some places even observing decontamination rituals to purge families or communities of the taboo of suicide. Dali (2007, cited in Adinkrah, 2011) has found out that among some groups in Northern Ghana, when suicide occurs inside a house or an apartment, the corpse must be removed through a window or a special aperture in the wall. This is because conveying the body through the doorway permanently desecrates the doorway for the living. In this way, Ghanaian culture attempts to discourage people from taking their own lives.

Despite the taboos and intolerance, suicide still plays out. The vast majority of those who complete suicide amongst Ghanaians are male (Adinkrah, 2010) – indicative of the cultural finding that males are less likely to discuss their issues and find it feminine to seek social support. Literature also shows that males are more likely to employ ‘immediate-lethal’ methods such as gunshots while females prefer less violent methods such as taking poison or overdosing on drugs. Dr Dan-Bright Dzorgbo, Head of Sociology at the University of Ghana, has noted that the suicide trend is increasing in Ghana, believing that social inequality and the wide gap between rich and poor exacerbates issues people may have in terms of dealing with poverty and trying to move up the social ladder.

So many issues. So many contributory factors. So many lives being lost. And yet the silence surrounding suicide and the apathy regarding its prevention is a lullaby leading many to cut their lives short. We must fight the tide which is causing many Ghanaian lives to fade to black too soon. It’s time to break the silence and shine a light on the subject – who knows how many lives will be saved if we do so.

Feeling depressed or suicidal? Don’t suffer alone – please contact Samaritans.org or if you’re in Ghana, contact 233 244 846 701 (24/7 hotline)


By Dr. Jermaine Bamfo (@Dr_Jabz27)